This is part of the syl­labi col­lec­tion.

Plant Design and Economics

Most of this course is from Sinnott and Towler (2009) or Coker (2011) and Peters, Timmerhaus, and West (2004).

Additionally the freely avail­able I.S. 4503-1967 for Indian Standard Specification for Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchangers is to be used.

Unit I

Introduction and Heat Exchangers

  • Introduction to ba­sic de­sign pro­ce­dure and the­ory
  • Heat ex­changer analy­sis:
    • The ef­fec­tive­ness NTU method
    • Overall heat-trans­fer co­ef­fi­cient
    • Fouling fac­tors (dirt fac­tors)
  • Shell and tube ex­chang­ers:
    • Construction de­tails
    • Heat ex­changer stan­dards and codes
    • Tubes
    • Shells
    • Tube-sheet lay­out (tube count)
    • Shell types (passes)
    • Shell and tube des­ig­na­tion
    • Baffles
    • Support plates and tie rods
    • Tube sheets (plates)
    • Shell and header noz­zles (branches)
    • Flow in­duced tube vi­bra­tions
    • Mean tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence (temperature dri­ving force)
    • General de­sign con­sid­er­a­tions
    • Fluid al­lo­ca­tion
      • Shell
      • Tubes
    • Shell and tube fluid ve­loc­i­ties
    • Stream tem­per­a­tures
    • Pressure drop
    • Fluid phys­i­cal prop­er­ties
    • Tube-side:
      • Heat-transfer co­ef­fi­cient
      • Pressure drop (single phase)
    • Shell-side:
      • Heat-transfer co­ef­fi­cient
      • Pressure drop (single phase)
      • Flow pat­tern
    • Design meth­ods:
      • Kern’s method
      • Bell’s method
    • Shell and bun­dle geom­e­try
    • Effect of foul­ing on pres­sure drop
    • Pressure drop lim­i­ta­tions

Unit II

Condensers

  • Heat-transfer fun­da­men­tals
  • Condensation out­side hor­i­zon­tal tubes
  • Condensation in­side and out­side ver­ti­cal tubes
  • Condensation in­side hor­i­zon­tal tubes
  • Condensation of steam
  • Mean tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence
  • Desuperheating and sub-cool­ing
  • Condensation of mix­tures
  • Pressure drop in con­densers
  • Design of:
    • Forced cir­cu­la­tion re­boil­ers
    • Thermosyphon re­boil­ers
    • Kettle re­boil­ers
  • Heat trans­fer to ves­sels
  • Jacketed ves­sels
  • Internal coils
  • Agitated ves­sels

Unit III

Design meth­ods for bi­nary dis­til­la­tion sys­tems

  • Basic equa­tions
  • McCabe-Thiele method
  • Low prod­uct con­cen­tra­tions
  • The Smoker equa­tions
  • Batch dis­til­la­tion
  • Steam dis­til­la­tion
  • Plate ef­fi­ciency
  • Prediction of plate ef­fi­ciency:
    • O’Connell’s cor­re­la­tion
    • Van Winkle’s cor­re­la­tion
    • AIChE method
    • Entrainment
  • Approximate col­umn siz­ing
  • Plate con­tac­tors
  • Selection of plate type
  • Plate con­struc­tion
  • Plate hy­draulic de­sign
  • Plate-design pro­ce­dure
  • Plate ar­eas
  • Diameter
  • Liquid-flow arrange­ment
  • Entrainment
  • Weep point
  • Weir liq­uid crest
  • Weir di­men­sions
  • Perforated area
  • Hole size
  • Hole pitch
  • Hydraulic gra­di­ent
  • Liquid throw
  • Plate pres­sure drop
  • Downcomer de­sign [back-up]

Unit IV

Design of packed columns for ab­sorp­tion/​strip­ping

  • Types of pack­ing
  • Packed-bed height
  • Prediction of the height of a trans­fer unit (HTU)
  • Prediction of the num­ber of trans­fer units (NTU)
  • Column di­am­e­ter (capacity)
  • Column in­ter­nals
  • Wetting rates
  • Column aux­il­iaries

Unit V

Economics

Mainly from Peters, Timmerhaus, and West (2004).

  • Analysis of Cost Estimates:
    • Factors af­fect­ing in­vest­ment and pro­duc­tion costs
    • Capital in­vest­ment
    • Types of cap­i­tal cost es­ti­mates:
      • Methods for es­ti­mat­ing cap­i­tal in­vest­ment
      • Estimation of Revenue
      • Estimation of to­tal prod­uct cost
  • Gross Profit
  • Net Profit
  • Cash flow
  • Simple and Compound in­ter­est
  • Loan Payments
  • Cash flow pat­terns:
    • Discrete
    • Continuous
  • Profitability
  • Alternative in­vest­ments by dif­fer­ent prof­itabil­ity meth­ods
  • Effect of in­fla­tion on prof­itabil­ity analy­sis
  • Methods of prof­itabil­ity eval­u­a­tion for re­place­ments
  • Depreciation:
    • Straight line
    • Declining bal­ance
    • Double de­clin­ing bal­ance
    • Sum-of-digits
    • Sinking-fund
    • Accelerated cost re­cov­ery sys­tem
    • Modified ac­cel­er­ated cost re­cov­ery sys­tem

References

Coker, A.K. 2011. Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants. Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants v.1. Elsevier Science. https://​books.google.co.in/​books?id=N8RcH8juG\_YC.

Peters, M.S., K.D. Timmerhaus, and R.E. West. 2004. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. College Ie. McGraw-Hill. https://​books.google.co.in/​books?id=ZH4VQAAA­CAAJ.

Sinnott, R.K., and G. Towler. 2009. Chemical Engineering Design: SI Edition. Chemical Engineering Series. Elsevier Science. https://​books.google.co.in/​books?id=Fq7x­hZjPuLEC.