This is part of the syl­labi col­lec­tion.

Petroleum Refining Technology

The course is com­pre­hen­sively cov­ered by Prasad (2017), with some ref­er­ences to Nelson (1958).

Unit I

  • Petroleum Exploration Production
  • Refining of Crude oils
  • Crude oils
    • Characteristics
    • Constituents
    • Classification

Unit II

  • Quality Control of Petroleum Products
  • Classification of lab­o­ra­tory tests
    • Distillation
    • Vapor pres­sure
    • Flash and fire points
    • Octane num­ber
    • Performance num­ber
    • Cetane num­ber
    • Aniline point
    • Viscosity in­dex
    • Calorific value
    • Smoke point
    • Char value
    • Viscosity
    • Penetration tests
    • Cloud and pour points
    • Drop point of grease
    • Melting and set­tling points of wax
    • Softening point of Bitumen
    • Induction pe­riod of gaso­line
    • Thermal sta­bil­ity of jet fu­els
    • Gum con­tent
    • Total Sulfur
    • Acidity and Alkalinity
    • Copper Strip Corrosion Test
    • Silver Strip Corrosion Test for ATF
    • Ash
    • Carbon Residue
      • Conradson method
      • Ramsbottom method
    • Color
    • Density and Specific grav­ity
    • Refractive in­dex of hy­dro­car­bon liq­uids
    • Water sep­a­ra­tion in­dex (modified) (WSIM)
    • Ductility

Unit III

  • Petroleum Products:
    • Composition
    • Properties & Specification of:
      • LPG
      • Naphthas
      • Motor spirit
      • Kerosene
      • Aviation Turbine Fuels
      • Diesel Fuels
      • Fuel Oils
      • Petroleum Hydrocarbon Solvents
      • Lubricating oils (automotive en­gine oils, in­dus­trial lu­bri­cat­ing oils elec­tri­cal in­su­lat­ing oils, Jute Batching oils, white oils, steam tur­bine oils, metal work­ing oils, etc.)
      • Petroleum Waxes
      • Bitumens
      • Petroleum coke
  • Crude Oil Distillation:
    • Desalting of crude oils
    • Atmospheric dis­til­la­tion of crude oil
    • Vacuum dis­til­la­tion of at­mos­pheric residue
  • Thermal Conversion Process:
    • Thermal Cracking Reactions
    • Thermal Cracking
    • Vis-breaking
      • Conventional
      • Soaker
    • Coking
      • Delayed Coking
      • Fluid Coking
      • Flexi-coking
    • Calcination of Green Coke

Unit IV

  • Catalytic Conversion Process:
    • Fluid cat­alytic crack­ing
    • Catalytic re­form­ing
    • Hydro-cracking
    • Catalytic Alkylation
    • Catalytic Isomerization
    • Catalytic Polymerization
  • Finishing Process:
    • Hydrogen sul­phide re­moval processes
    • Sulphur con­ver­sion processes
    • Sweetening processes
      • Caustic treat­ment
      • Solutizer process
      • Doctor treat­ing process
      • Copper chlo­ride sweet­en­ing
      • Hypochlorite sweet­en­ing
      • Air and in­hibitor treat­ing process
      • Merox processes
      • Sulphuric acid treat­ment
      • Clay treat­ment
    • Solvent ex­trac­tion processes
      • Edeleanu process
      • Udex process
      • Sulfolane process
    • Hydro-treating processes

Unit V

  • Lube Oil Manufacturing Process
    • Evaluation of crude oils for lube oil base stocks
    • Vacuum dis­til­la­tion
    • Solvent de-as­phalt­ing
    • Solvent ex­trac­tion of lube oil frac­tions
      • Furfural
      • NMP
      • Phenol
    • Solvent de-wax­ing
    • Hydro-finishing
  • Manufacture of pe­tro­leum waxes
    • Wax sweat­ing
    • Solvent de-oil­ing
  • Manufacture of Bitumens
    • Selection of crude oil
    • Methods of man­u­fac­tur­ing bi­tu­mens:
      • Distillation
      • Solvent pre­cip­i­ta­tion
      • Air blow­ing

Specific Figures

These 16 flow­sheets and their the­ory are from Prasad (2017) and have been ear­marked for im­por­tance.

  • Atmospheric Distillation of Crude Oil
    • Page 183
    • Figure 6.3
  • Vacuum Distillation Process
    • Page 185
    • Figure 6.4
  • Thermal Cracking
    • Page 195
    • Figure 7.2
  • Soaker Vis-breaking
    • Page 202
    • Figure 7.6
  • Delayed Coking
    • Page 206
    • Figure 7.8
  • Fluid Catalytic Cracking
    • Page 231
    • Figure 8.4
  • Catalytic Reforming
    • Page 240
    • Figure 8.6
  • HF Alkylation Processes
    • Page 255
    • Figure 8.12
  • Claus Process
    • Page 272
    • Figure 9.2
  • Lube Oil Complex
    • Page 297
    • Figure 10.1
  • Lube Distillates
    • Page 298
    • Figure 10.2
  • Ketone De-waxing
    • Page 308
    • Figure 10.5
  • Dilchil De-waxing Process
    • Page 310
    • Figure 10.7
  • Solvent De-oiling
    • Page 315
    • Figure 10.10
  • Production of Bitumen
    • Page 322
    • Figure 11.1
  • Air Blowing Process
    • Page 324
    • Figure 11.3

Specific Topics

These 9 the­ory top­ics are im­por­tant for the later units.

  • Vis-breaking
    • Page 196
  • Fluid Coking
    • Page 210
  • Catalytic Reforming
    • Page 238
  • Hydrocracking
    • Page 244
  • Catalytic Isomerization
    • Page 256
  • Catalytic Polymerization
    • Page 260
  • Claus Process
    • Page 271
  • Sweetening Process
    • Page 276
  • Solvent Extraction of Lube Oil Fractions
    • Page 302
  • Solvent Dewaxing Process
    • Page 307

References

Nelson, W.L. 1958. Petroleum Refinery Engineering. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engineering. McGraw-Hill. https://​books.google.co.in/​books?id=HLx­TAAAA­MAAJ.

Prasad, R. 2017. Petroleum Refining Technology. Mercury Learning & Information. https://​books.google.co.in/​books?id=9v4Ck­AEA­CAAJ.